Coronavirus disease 2019

Coronavirus disease 2019
Other names
  • 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease
  • Novel coronavirus pneumonia[1]
  • Wuhan pneumonia;[2][3] Wuhan flu[4]
  • "Coronavirus" or other names for SARS-CoV-2
COVID-19 symptoms
COVID-19 symptoms
SpecialtyAcute respiratory infection[5]
SymptomsFever, dry cough, shortness of breath
ComplicationsPneumonia, ARDS, kidney failure
Usual onset2-14 days
Risk factorsNot taking preventive measures
Diagnostic methodrRT-PCR testing, immunoassay, CT scan
PreventionCorrect hand washing technique, cough etiquette, avoiding close contact with sick people or asymptomatic carriers, social distancing practices, wearing face masks, using hand sanitizer
TreatmentSymptomatic and supportive,
Frequency218,815[6] confirmed cases
Deaths8,810[6] (3.4% of confirmed cases; lower when unreported cases are included)[7]

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),[8] a virus closely related to the SARS virus.[9][10][11]

The disease is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic.[12][13] Those who get the disease might get a fever, dry cough, fatigue (tiredness) and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. In very bad cases, they can even get a much worse fever, fewer white blood cells, and loss of appetite. They might cough up blood, and have kidney failure.

People with this disease can get pneumonia and multi-organ failure if they are weak, old, or are already sick.[12][13] There are people who are called asymptomatic carriers, which means that they did not have all or some of the symptoms of the virus. This is very dangerous since they may not know that they have the virus and can give it to other people without knowing it.

The countries with the most sick people are the USA, India and Brazil. COVID-19 virus travels from person to person through the air like the common cold does. Scientists think the virus is not able to hang in the air a long time and go far like the measles virus does.[14]

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of COVID-19[15]
Symptom Range
Fever 83–99%
Cough 59–82%
Loss of appetite 40–84%
Tiredness/fatigue 44–70%
Shortness of breath 31–40%
Coughing up sputum 28–33%
Muscle aches and pains 11–35%

According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, COVID-19 makes people feel sick in different ways, but it usually affects the lungs. People usually cough and have difficulty breathing. They often also have a fever, chills, headache, pain in their muscles, or trouble tasting or smelling things.[16]

According to an April 2020 study by the American Gastroenterological Association, COVID-19 can make sick people vomit or have diarrhea but this is rare. They said about 7.7% of COVID-19 patients threw up, about 7.8% had diarrhea and about 3.6% had pain in their stomachs.[17]


In February 2020, the World Health Organization announced they had chosen a name for the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2: COVID-19, replacing the temporary name "2019-nCoV."[18] "Co" is for "corona," "Vi" for "virus," and "D" for "disease," and "19" for the year 2019. They said they did not want the name to have any person, place, or animal in it, like "Wuhan," because then people might blame the disease on that place, person, or animal. They also wanted the name to be easy to say out loud.[19]

How the virus causes disease

The expanding part of the lungs, pulmonary alveoli, have two main types of cells. One cell, type I, absorbs from the air, i.e. gas exchange. The other, type II, produces surfactants, which help keep the lungs fluid, clean, infection free, etc. COVID-19 finds a way into a surfactant producing type II cell, and smothers it by reproducing COVID-19 virus within it. Each type II cell which is killed by the virus causes an extreme reaction in the lungs. Fluids, pus, and dead cell material flood the lung, causing the coronavirus pulmonary disease.[20]

Lung damage

Scientists looked at the lungs from people who died of COVID-19. They compared them to lungs from people who died of influenza A and to lungs from people who died but not from any problem with their lungs. They saw the cells that made up the skins of the blood vessels in the lungs were more badly damaged in the lungs from COVID-19 patients, and there was more blood clotting. The most important difference the scientists saw was that the lungs had begun to grow new blood vessels.[21][22]

Other organs

According to doctors and scientists from Columbia University, the virus damages the inside of the blood vessels, which causes blood clotting. The blood clots travel through the body and can damage the heart, kidneys and other systems. The virus can also damage organs by itself. In New York City hospitals, 50% of COVID-19 patients had kidney failure in some way. The scientists said that the kidneys have many ACE2 receptors, the same receptor that SARS-CoV-2 uses to sneak into cells.[23][24]

Long-term effects

Some scientists, for example Robert Stevens of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, are starting studies to watch people who have recovered from COVID-19 to see what long-term effects they have. Scientists think that people who have COVID-19 and do not die might still have lung or brain damage for the rest of their lives.[25]

Other scientists saw that SARS-CoV-2 made the body make less of the male hormone testosterone and considered that SARS-CoV-2 could cause sterility the way the mumps and other viruses do. A sterile man cannot father children naturally.[26][27]

COVID-19 and pollution

Scientists saw that more people died from COVID-19 in places with large amounts of air pollution. One team of scientists from Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg looked at air pollution information from satellites and statistics on COVID-19 deaths in Italy, France, Germany and Spain and saw that places with large amounts of nitrogen dioxide pollution had more people die from COVID-19. Nitrogen dioxide can damage the lungs.[28][29]

Transmission and prevention

Protective mask

There are many ways to stop the spread of COVID-19. Washing hands for 20 seconds or more will help kill the viruses.[30][31][32] Try not to touch your own face - eyes, nose, or mouth - with unwashed hands.[30][31][32]

People should stay away from crowded places if they can, because being close to big groups of people can easily spread the virus.[30][31][32] In fact, many health organizations say that people should stay at least two metres from another person.[a]

Many people wear face masks in public to stop getting the virus, and it is recommended by countries such as China,[35] Hong Kong[36] and Thailand.[37] Most face masks work best to stop you giving the virus to other people. When people with the virus wear masks they give it to less people. One study published in Cell showed that wearing a mask pulled down to cover the mouth but not the nose was not good. People usually breathe through their noses and not their mouths. Scientists found that nose cells were more likely to have virus in them than throat cells. Because of this, the scientists said, breathing out through the nose was more likely to spread the virus than breathing out through the mouth, so people should wear masks that cover their noses.[38]

One study in China found the virus in semen from men with COVID-19. The scientists wondered if men could give COVID-19 to partners in sexual intercourse.[27]

Tests and testing

Experts recommend testing people for COVID-19. Some people may have SARS-CoV-2 in their bodies but not feel sick right away. These people can spread the virus to others.

There are two types of tests. Viral tests show whether a person has the virus right then. Antibody tests show whether the person had the virus and has since recovered.[39]

A group of scientists from Hokkaido University developed an antibody test that could detect avian flu antibodies in only 20 minutes. They said their test could be changed to detect SARS-CoV-2.[40][41]


The virus that causes COVID-19 is new to humans. This means that there are no medicines that can stop people from getting COVID-19 or that can treat them if they do get it. Scientists are working hard to invent and test new medicines. Some scientists are trying to invent a new vaccine which would stop people from getting sick with COVID-19. Other scientists are testing medicines used for other diseases to see if those medicines make people get less sick if they do get COVID-19.


In April 2020, the group Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) said that scientists were looking at 115 compounds that could be a vaccine.[42] Anthony Fauci, director of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, says it takes 18 months to test a vaccine to make sure it works and is safe.[43]

In April 2020, scientists from the University of Pittsburgh said they had made a vaccine, called PittCoVacc, and tested it in mice.[44][45]

Another team of scientists led by Dr. Josef Penninger of the University of British Columbia invented a medicine called APN01. They tested APN01 in engineered human tissue. This is human cells put together to act like part of the body, but it is not a whole animal or person. They added a protein called "human recombinant soluble angiotensin converting enzyme 2" (hrsACE2) and saw that it stopped the virus from taking over cells. They named their hrsACE2 APN01.[46][47]

This picture shows why its good to wash hands, and more so during this pandemic. If everyone washed their hands, they can help give doctors and other people who work in health and medicine more time to help people.[48][49][50]
The current death rate of COVID-19
These experts talk about COVID-19.

In late April 2020, a team from Oxford University said that they had developed a COVID-19 vaccine. The United States National Institutes of Health tested it in rhesus monkeys, and it worked. Because they had already been working on a vaccine against a different coronavirus, they had a head start working on one for SARS-CoV-2. They would try to test their vaccine on 6000 people by the end of May 2020, and that their vaccine could be ready for people to use in September 2020.[51][52]

In November 2020, two companies, Pfizer and Moderna both said their vaccines had completed some testing. Both were over 90% effective. Both companies asked the United States Food and Drug Administration for permission to start giving the vaccine to people.[53] Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are messenger RNA vaccines they teach the body to recognize the virus. They say mRNA vaccines take less time to develop and make than protein or whole-virus vaccines.[54][55]

A 90 year old woman from Northern Ireland was the first to receive the Pfizer vaccine on December 8, 2020.

Interferon beta

A study from a British company called Synairgen showed that some patients with mild COVID-19 who took interferon beta were less likely to develop severe COVID-19, and they got better faster. The doctors gave the patients interferon beta by letting them breathe in a spray.[56][57] The study was performed on 101 patients,[57] which is not many.[56] The scientists gave some patients interferon beta and other patients a placebo, a harmless but empty spray. The COVID-19 patients who received the real medicine were 79% less likely to develop a severe case.[57] As of July 2020, scientists are planning to test inhaled interferon beta in a larger study with 400 patients to see if it really does help.[56]

Unlike hydroxychloroquine, interferon beta is a common drug.[56] Giving interferon beta to COVID-19 patients would not mean taking medicine away from people with malaria or lupus.


Some people thought hydroxychloroquine, a medicine given to people with malaria, lupus, and arthritis, might work against COVID-19. One study from China showed that COVID-19 patients who took hydroxychloroquine got better faster, but the study was not peer reviewed. Other studies in France and China seemed to show hydroxychloroquine helped, but the doctors did not compare patients who took hydroxychloroquine to patients who did not, so they could not be sure it was the hydroxychloroquine that was helping them or whether it was something else.[58] United States President Donald Trump said he was taking hydroxychloroquine and told other people to take it too, but Dr. Anthony Fauci, part of the White House official coronavirus task force, said no one could know for sure if hydroxychloroquine worked against SARS-CoV-2.[59][60] In March, the United States Food and Drug Administration allowed doctors to give hydroxychloroquine and another drug called chloroquine to COVID-19 patients,[59] but in June, they told doctors to stop. By then, more studies had shown that the drugs did not help much and could harm the patients' hearts.[61][58]


Some scientists also think the drug remdesivir, which was invented as a medicine for Ebola, could work against SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir works against other viruses and it has already been tested in humans, so the doctors already knew it would not hurt the patients even if it did not make them better. Because scientists already knew remdesivir was safe, they were able to start testing it in humans right away.[62][63]

Doctors gave remdesivir to some COVID-19 patients on a compassionate basis, meaning they gave them the drug because there was no other treatment available. 68% of the patients got better, 13% died, and 25% had serious side effects. But because the study had no control group, meaning these patients were not compared to other COVID-19 patients who were not taking remdesivir, and because only 53 people were in the experiment, scientists must run more studies before they can be sure remdesivir works.[62][63]

The chairman and CEO of the company that makes remdesivir, David O'Day, said that remdesivir might work better in some patients than in others and asked scientists to perform many different kinds of studies. [62][63] On July 3, the European Commission approved remdesivir for use in the very sickest COVID-19 patients.[64]

Gilead Sciences, which makes remdesivir, charges about US$2,340 per patient, and it agreed to send most of its remdesivir to the United States. In July 2020, the Drug Controller General of India approved the third of three generic version of remdesivir made by Indian companies. The cheapest of them costs 4800 rupees per vial, or US$64.31.[64]


Some scientists gave SARS and MERS to llamas so the llamas' immune systems would make antibodies, or natural medicines, against those viruses, and they found a few antibodies that worked. In a May 2020 study, the scientists said this could work with SARS-CoV-2 too.[65][66]

Prevention and treatment

Surgical face mask

Staying home will reduce your chances of catching coronavirus disease 2019. Wearing a mask, staying 2 meters (6 feet) away from people, washing your hands, using disinfectants and avoiding large crowds will prevent COVID-19.[67] Eating a healthy diet can help you physically and emotionally.[68]

The effectiveness of the mask depends on what type of mask it is. While masks like surgical masks are effective, others like a neck gator are not.[69]


  1. Close contact is defined as one metre (three feet) by the WHO[33] and two metres (six feet) by the CDC.[34]


  1. 国家卫生健康委关于新型冠状病毒肺炎暂命名事宜的通知 (in Chinese). National Health Commission. 7 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020. Unknown parameter |name-list-format= ignored (help)
  2. Campbell, Charlie (20 January 2020). "The Wuhan Pneumonia Crisis Highlights the Danger in China's Opaque Way of Doing Things". Time. Retrieved 13 March 2020. Unknown parameter |name-list-format= ignored (help)
  3. Lucey, Daniel; Sparrow, Annie (14 January 2020). "China Deserves Some Credit for Its Handling of the Wuhan Pneumonia". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 13 March 2020. Unknown parameter |name-list-format= ignored (help)
  4. Stobbe, Mike (8 February 2020). "Wuhan coronavirus? 2018 nCoV? Naming a new disease". Fortune. Associated Press. Retrieved 13 March 2020. Unknown parameter |name-list-format= ignored (help)
  5. See SARS-CoV-2 for more.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by Johns Hopkins CSSE". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins CSSE. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  7. "World Health Organization. (‎2020)‎. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)‎: situation report, 46" (PDF). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  8. "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
  9. World Health Organization (February 11, 2020). Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): situation report, 22 (PDF) (Report). World Health Organization.
  10. Gorbalenya, Alexander E. (2020-02-11). "Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus – The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group". bioRxiv: 2020.02.07.937862. doi:10.1101/2020.02.07.937862. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020. Unknown parameter |name-list-format= ignored (help)
  11. "Coronavirus disease named Covid-19". BBC News. 2020-02-11. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Hui, D. S.; I. Azhar E.; Madani, T. A.; Ntoumi, F.; Kock, R.; Dar, O.; Ippolito, G.; Mchugh, T. D.; Memish, Z. A.; Drosten, Christian; Zumla, A.; Petersen, E. (February 2020). "The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health—The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China". Int J Infect Dis. 91: 264–66. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009. PMID 31953166.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Q&A on coronaviruses". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  14. CDC (2020-02-11). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  15. "Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 6 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  16. "Symptoms of Coronavirus". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  17. (May 4, 2020). "New COVID-19 guidance for gastroenterologists". Press release. Retrieved May 4, 2020. 
  18. Brett Dahlberg and Elena Renken (February 11, 2020). "New Coronavirus Disease Officially Named COVID-19 By The World Health Organization". NPR. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  19. Sanya Mansoor (February 11, 2020). "What's in a Name? Why WHO's Formal Name for the New Coronavirus Disease Matters". Time. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  20. Doctor Duc C Vuong, general surgeon in Albuquerque, New Mexico (23 March 2020). "HOW COVID-19 KILLS--I'm a Surgeon--And Why We Can't Save You". YouTube. Retrieved 5 April 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. (May 21, 2020). "Lungs of deceased COVID-19 patients show distinctive features". Press release. 
  22. Maximilian Ackermann; Stijn E. Verleden; Mark Kuehnel; Axel Haverich; Tobias Welte; Florian Laenger; Arno Vanstapel; Christopher Werlein; Helge Stark; Alexandar Tzankov; William W. Li; Vincent W. Li; Steven J. Mentzer; Danny Jonigk (May 21, 2020). "Pulmonary Vascular Endothelialitis, Thrombosis, and Angiogenesis in Covid-19". New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2015432. Retrieved May 23, 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  23. Eurekalert (July 10, 2020). "Columbia physicians give first comprehensive review of COVID-19's effects outside the lung". Press release. Retrieved July 10, 2020. 
  24. Aakriti Gupta; Mahesh V. Madhavan; Kartik Sehgal; Nandini Nair; Shiwani Mahajan; Tejasav S. Sehrawat; Behnood Bikdeli; Neha Ahluwalia; John C. Ausiello; Elaine Y. Wan; Daniel E. Freedberg; Ajay J. Kirtane; Sahil A. Parikh; Mathew S. Maurer; Anna S. Nordvig; Domenico Accili; Joan M. Bathon; Sumit Mohan; Kenneth A. Bauer; Martin B. Leon; Harlan M. Krumholz; Nir Uriel; Mandeep R. Mehra; Mitchell S. V. Elkind; Gregg W. Stone; Allan Schwartz; David D. Ho; John P. Bilezikian; Donald W. Landry (July 10, 2020). "Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19". Nature Medicine. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0968-3. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
  25. Zoe Cormier (June 22, 2020). "How Covid-19 can damage the brain". BBC. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  26. Erin Coulehan (July 13, 2020). "COVID-19 can cause male infertility, be transmitted sexually". KTSM. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Diangeng Li; Meiling Jin; Pengtao Bao; Weiguo Zhao; Shixi Zhang (May 7, 2020). "Clinical Characteristics and Results of Semen Tests Among Men With Coronavirus Disease 2019". JAMA Netw Open. JAMA Network. 3 (5): e208292. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8292. Retrieved July 15, 2020.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  28. Eurekalert (April 20, 2020). "Corona and air pollution: How does nitrogen dioxide impact fatalities?". Press release. Retrieved April 20, 2020. 
  29. Yaron Ogen (July 15, 2020). "Assessing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels as a contributing factor to coronavirus (COVID-19) fatality". Science of The Total Environment. 726. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138605. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 Centers for Disease Control (3 February 2020). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Prevention & Treatment". Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 World Health Organization. "Advice for Public". Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020. Unknown parameter |name-list-format= ignored (help)
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 "My Hand-Washing Song: Readers Offer Lyrics For A 20-Second Scrub". Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  33. "Q&A on coronaviruses". World Health Organization. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  34. "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 2, 2020. Archived from the original on April 3, 2020. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  35. "For different groups of people: how to choose masks". National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020. Disposable medical masks: Recommended for: · People in crowded places · Indoor working environment with a relatively dense population · People going to medical institutions · Children in kindergarten and students at school gathering to study and do other activities
  36. "Prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)" (PDF). Centre for Health Protection. Retrieved 22 March 2020. Wear a surgical mask when taking public transport or staying in crowded places.
  37. Kuhakan, Jiraporn (12 March 2020). "'Better than nothing': Thailand encourages cloth masks amid surgical mask shortage". Reuters. Thailand's health authorities are encouraging people to make cloth face masks at home to guard against the spread of the coronavirus amid a shortage of surgical masks. ... The droplet from coughing and sneezing is around five microns and we have tested already that cloth masks can protect against droplets bigger than one micron.
  38. "Leaving Nose Uncovered Defeats Purpose of Wearing Mask: Study". NBC. July 23, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  39. "Testing for COVID-19". Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  40. (May 21, 2020). "New technology can detect anti-virus antibody in 20 minutes". Press release. Retrieved May 26, 2020. 
  41. Keine Nishiyama; Yohei Takeda; Masatoshi Maeki; Akihiko Ishida; Hirofumi Tani; Koji Shigemura; Akihide Hibara; Yutaka Yonezawa; Kunitoshi Imai; Haruko Ogawa; Manabu Tokeshi (August 1, 2020). "Rapid detection of anti-H5 avian influenza virus antibody by fluorescence polarization immunoassay using a portable fluorescence polarization analyzer". 316. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2020.128160. Retrieved May 26, 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  42. Le, Tung Thanh; Andreadakis, Zacharias; Kumar, Arun; Román, Raúl Gómez; Tollefsen, Stig; Saville, Melanie; Mayhew, Stephen (2020-04-09). "The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. doi:10.1038/d41573-020-00073-5.
  43. Jon Cohen (April 3, 2020). "Vaccine designers take first shots at COVID-19". Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  44. Eun Kim, Geza Erdos, Shaohua Huang, Thomas W. Kenniston, Stephen C. Balmert, Cara Donahue Carey, V. Stalin Raje, Michael W. Epperly, William B. Klimstrad,Bart L. Haagmans, Emrullah Korkmaz, Louis D. Falo Jr., and Andrea Gambotto (April 2, 2020). "Microneedle array delivered recombinant coronavirus vaccines:Immunogenicity and rapid translational development". EBioMedicine. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102743. Retrieved April 3, 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  45. University of Pittsburgh (April 2, 2020). "COVID-19 vaccine candidate shows promise in first peer-reviewed research". Eurekalert. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  46. University of British Columbia. "Trial drug can significantly block early stages of COVID-19 in engineered human tissues". Eurekalert. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  47. Vanessa Monteil, Hyesoo Kwon, Patricia Prado, Astrid Hagelkrüys, Reiner A. Wimmer, Martin Stahl, Alexandra Leopoldi, Elena Garreta, Carmen Hurtado del Pozo, Felipe Prosper, J.P. Romero, Gerald Wirnsberger, Haibo Zhang, Arthur S. Slutsky, Ryan Conder, Nuria Montserrat, Ali Mirazimi, Josef M. Penninger (April 2, 2020). "Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infections in engineered human tissues using clinical-grade soluble human ACE2" (PDF). Cell. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.004. Retrieved April 5, 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  48. Wiles, Siouxsie (9 March 2020). "The three phases of Covid-19 – and how we can make it manageable". The Spinoff. Retrieved 9 March 2020. Unknown parameter |name-list-format= ignored (help)
  49. Anderson RM, Heesterbeek H, Klinkenberg D, Hollingsworth TD (March 2020). "How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic?". Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30567-5. PMID 32164834. A key issue for epidemiologists is helping policy makers decide the main objectives of mitigation – eg, minimising morbidity and associated mortality, avoiding an epidemic peak that overwhelms health-care services, keeping the effects on the economy within manageable levels, and flattening the epidemic curve to wait for vaccine development and manufacture on scale and antiviral drug therapies.
  50. Barclay, Eliza (10 March 2020). "How canceled events and self-quarantines save lives, in one chart". Vox. Unknown parameter |name-list-format= ignored (help)
  51. Bill Bostock (April 27, 2020). "6 monkeys given an experimental coronavirus vaccine from Oxford did not catch COVID-19 after heavy exposure, raising hopes for a human vaccine". Business Insider. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  52. David D. Kirkpatrick (April 27, 2020). "In Race for a Coronavirus Vaccine, an Oxford Group Leaps Ahead". New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  53. Denise Grady (November 16, 2020). "Early Data Show Moderna's Coronavirus Vaccine Is 94.5% Effective". New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  54. Joanna Roberts (April 1, 2020). "Five things you need to know about: mRNA vaccines". Horizon. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
  55. Norbert Pardi; Michael J. Hogan; Frederick W. Porter; Drew Weissman (January 12, 2018). "mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology". 18. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery: 261–279. doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.243. Retrieved May 1, 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 Benjamin Mueller (July 20, 2020). "New Treatment for Covid-19 Shows Promise, but Scientists Urge Caution". New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 Synairgen (July 20, 2020). "Synairgen announces positive results from trial of SNG001 in hospitalised COVID-19 patients". Press release. Archived from the original on July 20, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020. 
  58. 58.0 58.1 Michael Crowley; Katie Thomas; Maggie Haberman (April 5, 2020). "Ignoring Expert Opinion, Trump Again Promotes Use of Hydroxychloroquine". New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  59. 59.0 59.1 Peter Baker; Katie Rogers; David Enrich; Maggie Haberman (April 6, 2020). "Trump's Aggressive Advocacy of Malaria Drug for Treating Coronavirus Divides Medical Community". New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
  60. Richard Luscombe (April 6, 2020). "Fauci: no evidence anti-malaria drug Trump pushes works against virus". The Guardian. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  61. "F.D.A. Withdraws Approval of Malaria Dugs Touted by Trump". New York Times. June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 Jonathan Grein, M.D., Norio Ohmagari, M.D., Ph.D., Daniel Shin, M.D., George Diaz, M.D., Erika Asperges, M.D., Antonella Castagna, M.D., Torsten Feldt, M.D., Gary Green, M.D., Margaret L. Green, M.D., M.P.H., François-Xavier Lescure, M.D., Ph.D., Emanuele Nicastri, M.D., Rentaro Oda, M.D., Kikuo Yo, M.D., D.M.Sc., Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, M.D., Alex Studemeister, M.D., John Redinski, D.O., Seema Ahmed, M.D., Jorge Bernett, M.D., Daniel Chelliah, M.D., Danny Chen, M.D., Shingo Chihara, M.D., Stuart H. Cohen, M.D., Jennifer Cunningham, M.D., Antonella D’Arminio Monforte, M.D., Saad Ismail, M.D., Hideaki Kato, M.D., Giuseppe Lapadula, M.D., Erwan L’Her, M.D., Ph.D., Toshitaka Maeno, M.D., Sumit Majumder, M.D., Marco Massari, M.D., Marta Mora-Rillo, M.D., Yoshikazu Mutoh, M.D., Duc Nguyen, M.D., Pharm.D., Ewa Verweij, M.D., Alexander Zoufaly, M.D., Anu O. Osinusi, M.D., Adam DeZure, M.D., Yang Zhao, Ph.D., Lijie Zhong, Ph.D., Anand Chokkalingam, Ph.D., Emon Elboudwarej, Ph.D., Laura Telep, M.P.H., Leighann Timbs, B.A., Ilana Henne, M.S., Scott Sellers, Ph.D., Huyen Cao, M.D., Susanna K. Tan, M.D., Lucinda Winterbourne, B.A., Polly Desai, M.P.H., Robertino Mera, M.D., Ph.D., Anuj Gaggar, M.D., Ph.D., Robert P. Myers, M.D., Diana M. Brainard, M.D., Richard Childs, M.D., and Timothy Flanigan, M.D. (April 10, 2020). "Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19". New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007016. Retrieved April 11, 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 Michelle Fay Cortez, Robert Langreth, and Jason Gale. "Two-Thirds of Severe Covid-19 Cases Improved on Gilead Drug". Bloomberg News. Retrieved April 11, 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  64. 64.0 64.1 Reuters (July 6, 2020). "Mylan to launch generic version of Covid-19 treatment drug remdesivir in India this month". Hindustan Times. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  65. Jillian Kramer (May 6, 2020). "Hoping Llamas Will Become Coronavirus Heroes". New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  66. Daniel Wrapp; Dorien De Vlieger; Kizzmekia S. Corbett; Gretel M. Torres; Nianshuang Wang; Wander Van Breedam; Kenny Roose; Loes van Schie; Markus Hoffmann; Stefan Pohlmann; Barney S. Graham; Nico Callewaert; Bert Schepens; Xavier Saelens; Jason S. McLellan (May 5, 2020). "ArticleStructural Basis for Potent Neutralization of Betacoronaviruses by Single-Domain Camelid Antibodies" (PDF). Cell. Retrieved May 6, 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  69. SeattlePI, by Callie Craighead (2020-08-13). "Here are the most and least effective face coverings to use during COVID-19". Retrieved 2021-04-06.

More reading

Related pages

Other websites

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by contributors (read/edit). Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Cover photo is available under CC BY 2.0 license.